If someone is under the age of 65 and suffers from a chronic disease (lung, liver, kidney disease, cancer, autoimmune disease), or above 65, there is a higher risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis and bloodstream infections. The pneumococcal vaccine is therefore recommended for these sections of the population.
In Hungary, the influenza virus causes an epidemic every year at some point between November and March. The advancement of age, chronic illness or pregnancy all increase the chances of complications as a result of contracting influenza. It is also important to note that having influenza also increases the risk of pneumococcal pneumonia and chronic inflammation. This means that the inclusion of an annual vaccine against influenza plays an indirect role in protecting against pneumococcal-related diseases.
Tetanus, whooping coughing vaccine
Tetanus vaccination is recommended for adults every 10 years. If an adult spends a lot of time with an infant, it is important to be aware that an asymptomatic carrier can infect an unvaccinated infant with whooping cough. For this reason, it is recommended that expectant mothers and other adults who are involved in caring for newborn babies are given a booster vaccination.
10% of young women of child-rearing age did not contract chicken pox in their childhood. This is an important fact, as pregnant women are more susceptible to chicken pox and more likely to develop complications in the event of an illness. The chickenpox virus can also affect the unborn baby. This means that in the event of an uncertain medical history (the patient or his family does not remember whether the patient has had chicken pox), it is a good idea for women hoping to conceive to find out to have a blood test to check whether they are immunized, and to have the vaccine even before getting pregnant if they are vulnerable to the disease. Vaccination against chickenpox cannot be given during pregnancy because the vaccine contains live attenuated pathogens.
The same applies to any patient who is due to illness will undergo treatment which will lead to a weakened immune system. If it can be fitted into treatment, it is advisable to check the prevalence of the disease in the event of an uncertain history, and if the patient is vulnerable, the vaccine should be taken before starting any treatment which will weaken the immune system.
Epidemic meningitis caused by the Neisseria meningitides bacteria is a risk both for infants and adolescents and young adults. 20% of this age group carries the bacterium in the throat area, and this is transmitted to a susceptible person by close contact (droplet infection). Factors related to young people’s lifestyles can increase the possibility of droplet infection (e.g. parties, festivals, dormitories). The disease is serious: the death rate is high and even if the patient recovers, they often suffer permanent damage. The incidence of different strains of Neisseria meningitides varies from place to place, meaning that the choice of the choice of recommended vaccine is determined according to geography.
Human papilloma virus vaccine
HPV vaccination is recommended for all sexually active women. Please note that vaccination is not a substitute for a regular gynecological cancer screening!
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine
Vaccination is also recommended for adults, depending on their lifestyle.
Hepatitis A and B vaccines
The Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for those groups at higher risk of contracting the disease (people suffering from liver disease, homosexuals, intravenous drug users, etc.) and those travelling to areas where the disease is present.
Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for people at risk due to their work (mostly healthcare workers), intravenous drug users, homosexuals, people suffering from liver disease, people being treated with blood and blood-related products, and those who are in close contact with an infected person. It is also important for people who are staying for a longer period in a highly-infected area.