Vaccinations are used for active immunization. Vaccinations entail the administration of attenuated (weakened) or non-living pathogens to the body. This causes the body’s immune system to produce antibodies in response to the pathogen.
Children are vaccinated according to a specific vaccination schedule. In Hungary, the following 2018 vaccination schedule is in place:
- 0-4 weeks: BCG
- At 2 months of age: DTPA-IPV-Hib + PCV13
- At 3 months of age: DTPA-IPV-Hib
- At 4 months of age: DTPA-IPV-Hib + PCV13
- At 12 months of age: PCV13
- At 15 months of age: MMR
- At 18 months of age: DTPA-IPV-Hib
- At 6 years old: DTPA-IPV
- At 11 years old: MMR, dTap
- At 12 years old: Hepatitis B
BCG = Tuberculosis / Pulmonary TB vaccine:
The BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is administered to newborn children in the upper arm by six weeks of age. Vaccination protects against childhood tuberculosis (tuberculosis, pulmonary tuberculosis). Temporary swelling or redness may occur at the site of the injection. There may be excretion of a pus-like substance from the site of the injection.
DTPa / DTAP - IPV = diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus and polio vaccine
The DTPa - IPV vaccine is a vaccine against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus and polio (otherwise known as infantile paralysis). The vaccine is administered at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months of age. The booster vaccines are given at 6 and 11 years of age. A booster vaccine is recommended for DTPa at 11 years of age.
Hib = Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine
The Hib vaccine protects against the B strain of the Haemophilus influenzae bacteria. This is the primary cause of meningitis and other inflammation-related diseases in young children. Immunization is carried out using a combination vaccine.
MMR = mumps, measles, rubella
MMR is a vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella/rosacea, and is administered to babies when they are 15 months old. The vaccine contains live attenuated viruses. The vaccination should be repeated aged 11. In rare cases, side effects (rash, runny nose, high temperature) may occur, though these disappear within a few days.
PVC13 (PREVENAR) = Pneumococcus conjugate vaccine
The pneumococcus bacteria is especially dangerous for children aged five years and below, especially infants. It can cause inflammations of the lung, middle ear and other areas, as well as meningitis. The vaccine is given to children at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.